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3. Bastejkalns (the Basteja hill)
and the Pulvera (Smilšu) tower

          Bastejkalns is located to the northeast of the Freedom Monument, opposite the canal. It was formed in 1857 – 1859 as an artificial bank on the former Smilšu (Sand) Bastion. The Pulvera (Smilšu) tower is situated a little further to northeast, i.e. in Old Riga. In the Middle Ages it guarded the main city gate where the Great Sand Road ended. In the written sources for the first time the tower was mentioned in 1330. In the beginning of the 16th century it was rebuilt and modernised, and it has acquired its present form after reconstruction in 1891.


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