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           15. Livonian settlement           

          To the southeast from the part of the city founded by German incomers in 1201, a Livonian settlement of lower reaches of the Daugava spread in the 12th century, on the bank the Riga River or the Riga Lake (between the present Audēju, Kalēju and Peitavas ielas). After the Cours’ attack on Riga in 1210 this territory was incorporated into the joint fortification system of the city, though up till the 16th century it remained as a relatively isolated part of the city inhabited by the local inhabitants (there are almost no written records of inheritance and debt journals of the 14th century about the property of German inhabitants in this territory). In the 14th – 15th centuries the above-mentioned part of the city was called Alksnāju or Alkšņu marsh, and from the beginning of the 16th century – as Old City (in Low German: Ellerbrok edder olde statt).

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